FAA and ICAO has requested that the SAE E31 Committee provide recommended measurement techniques and procedures for measurements of turbine exhaust particulate matter (PM) including both non-volatile ("soot") and volatile (condensed volatile gases) components. SAE E31 published (SAE AIR-5892) their opinion of the state-of-the-art of most mature potential non-volatile measurement techniques, and a similar report is in the works for addressing volatile PM. Measurement techniques are required for quantification of particle mass, particle size, number and particle chemical constituents at the nozzle exit plane.
Current Sensor Needs
Measurements of size (5 nm to 2.5 um), number, mass and chemical constituents are required for nonvolatile and volatile particles in the exhaust of aircraft turbine engines for stationary source compliance (test facilities) and health concerns around airports, test facilities and so on. NASA, DoD, FAA, universities and other agencies and private companies are working to develop measurement techniques, instrumentation and sampling methodologies for exit plane characterization of turbine PM. Sampling turbine exhaust at the harsh conditions of the nozzle exit plane offers challenges to transport unaltered sampled gas to the PM analyzers. Technologies for characterizing nonvolatile particles are more mature than for volatile particles. Volatile particles don't exist at the exit plane conditions, but form due to the condensation of volatile gases as the exhaust mixes and cools with bypass and ambient air. Characterization of volatile particles at the exit plane will require the development of mixing
chamber to control the process of volatile particle formation and subsequent measurement analysis, or a measure of exit plane precursor gases and a methodology to accurately predict downstream volatile particle products.
Upon approval by the EPA, DoD will use modern PM measurement technologies to quantify and report PM emissions form military engines. For civil aviation, the SAE E31 Committee will evaluate and recommend techniques and procedures for characterization of PM in response to FAA/EPA regulations if/as imposed.
Strategic Advisory Board (SAB) Members Addressing This Need
Cleveland Electric Laboratories Company, Inc.